Hammer crusher has the advantages of large crushing ratio (10-40), uniform particle size distribution, over smashing, low energy consumption, low equipment cost and convenient maintenance. Therefore, hammer crusher is widely applied in cement, building materials, coal, chemical industry, metallurgy and mining industry. The hammer crusher can be divided into two types, one rotor and double rotor, according to the number of rotor. Single rotor hammer crusher can be divided into two types: reversible and irreversible. The classification of hammer crusher is shown in Figure 1. The specifications of the hammer crusher are represented by the rotor diameter D and the length L. D means the circumference diameter of the hammer end, and L refers to the effective working length of the hammerhead arranged along the axial direction.
Figure1. classification of hammer crusher
2.Working principle of hammer crusher
The hammer crusher uses the hammer of high speed to impact the ore, so that the ore is crushed along the natural fissures and the joints and other fragile parts. Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of the working principle of a hammer crusher. When the ore enters the crushing chamber, it is crushed by the impact of the high-speed rotary hammer. At the same time, the kinetic energy of the ore was obtained during the impact process, and the ore was further crushed through the high speed to the crushing plate and the screen bar. In addition, during the whole process, the collisions of high-speed moving ores are also crushed. After the ore is crushed, it is discharged from the slot of the screen bar. The ore that is larger than the slot is then added to the screen bar and added to the hammer until the particle size is smaller than the slot discharge machine.
Figure 2. Working principle schematic diagram of hammer crusher
1.frame; 2.rotor; 3.hammer; 4.crushing plate; 5.screen bar
3.Structure of hammer crusher
The structure of hammer crusher is relatively simple. Figure 3 is a 1600 x 1600 single rotor irreversible hammer crusher, which is mainly composed of frame, transmission device, rotor and screen bar.
The frame of the hammer crusher is welded by steel plate, and it can also be made into a box structure. The frame can be divided into two parts on the upper and lower frames along the center line of the rotor, which are connected to each other by bolts. The upper part of the upper frame is the feeding port. Manganese steel liner is installed inside the frame and the contact parts of the ore. In addition, a small door is set on the side wall for installation and maintenance.
Because the working principle of hammer crusher is crushing by high-speed rotary hammer impacting on ore, its driving device is very simple, which is driven directly by motor through elastic coupling. The spindle is mounted on the bearing seat on both sides of the frame through the spherical center roller bearing. The bearings are lubricated regularly with dry oil.
The rotor of a hammer crusher consists of a spindle, disc and hammer etc. As the rotor is hinged to hang the hammer , it is usually used in combination. The main shaft is equipped with 11 disks, which are connected with the main shaft by the key. A spacer is fitted between the discs. In order to prevent the axial movement of the disc, the ends of the disc are fixed by the nut. The hammer is hinged on the pin axis in the disc spacing. 4 pin axes are arranged on the disc, and the pin shaft runs through all the discs, and the ends are tightened with the nuts. There are 10 hammers on each pin. The pin bushing is set on the pin shaft to prevent the axial movement of the hammer. In addition, the disc is also equipped with second sets of pin holes, and when the hammer wears 20mm, it can be moved to second groups of pin shafts.It is installed in the hole to continue the crushing operation, so that the hammer material can be made full use of.
Figure 3.1600x1600 hammer crusher
1. motor; 2 coupling; 3 bearing part; 4 spindle; 5 disc; 6 pin shaft; 7 shaft sleeve; 8 hammer; 9 flywheel; 10 feeding port; 11 casing; 12 liner; 13 screen plate.
There are usually 3-6 hammers along the circumference of the rotor and 6-10 hammers along the length of the rotor. When the lump and hardness of the crushed material are large, the quality of the hammer should be heavier and the number is less, and the quality of the hammer should be lighter, but the number of the hammer should be a little more. The hammer head of a hammer crusher is the most easily worn part, so it is usually made of wear resistant material such as high manganese steel. Its shape is mainly two kinds of plate and block (Figure 4). The hammer block ratio of plate hammer head, mainly used for fragmentation and greater hardness and longer length of material.
Figure 4.shape of hammer
1.plate shape；2.block shape
The screen bar of the hammer crusher are composed of an arc screen frame and a screen plate, which are set below the rotor. The screen plate is spelled by a lot of blocks, and is fixed on the screen rack by means of self weight and mutual extrusion. There are small and large conical screen holes on the plate. Curved screen frame is divided into left and right two parts were hanging on the horizontal axis, the horizontal axis through the bolt hanging lug in the outer side of the frame, when the hammer wear after adjusting bolt on the position of the gap size can change the end of the hammer and screen plate surface, to ensure that the gap in a certain range, so as to ensure the scope of the size of final product.
There is no special insurance device for the hammer crusher, but a spacer is set at the left end of the screen and the inner wall of the frame. When entering the non crushed material after crushing cavity, at the end of the lower plate hammer blow to enter the inner cavity interval, can be taken periodically without stopping. In addition, the hammer head is articulated on the pin shaft, and the hammer opens outward under the action of centrifugal force when rotating at high speed. When the crushing object is encountered, the hammer can shrink back and play a definite protective role.
4.Ring hammer crusher
The ring hammer crusher refers to the round ring of the hammer , the existing smooth ring and the tooth ring two kinds, referred to as the ring hammer. The ring hammer is suspended on the cruciform turntable. It can not only break the material with the rotor, but also rotate around the shaft and crush the material. The ring hammer crusher has compact structure, small size, strong durability, and is suitable for the crushing of coal, coal gangue, coke, shale and other materials not more than 15% water. The structure is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5. ring hammer crusher
1.frame；2.top cover；3.rotor with ring hammer；4.screen bar；5.screen bar adjusting device
5.Reversible hammer crusher
The reversible hammer crusher has the same structure and irreversibility. What is different is that the type of crusher is symmetrical to the vertical center line, and the rotor rotates in the opposite direction. When worn on the side of the hammer and the side plate and the screen plate, it can be stopped, reversing the motor, and breaking the other side of the hammer head and the other side of the corresponding liner and screen plate. This will greatly improve the life of the vulnerable parts, such as the hammers. The structure of a reversible hammer crusher is shown in figure 6.
Figure 6. Reversible hammer crusher
1.frame; 2.screen bar; 3.rotor; 4.adjusting device
6. Specification of hammer crusher
Symons Cone crusher is widely used in metallurgy, construction, road construction, chemical and silicate industry, and is suitable for crushing all kinds of ores and rocks with medium and above hardness. The machine has the characteristics of reliable structure, high production efficiency, convenient adjustment and use of economy. Compared with the traditional crusher, the output has also been greatly improved. Because the grease seal, to avoid the water supply and drainage system and water blocking oil often mixed ills; because of the use of hydraulic cavity cleaning system, compared with the conventional method, which greatly reduces the work time, save manpower, and ensure their safety, and spring, insurance system is overload protection device, can the foreign body iron through without damage to the crushing chamber.
2.working principle of symons cone crusher
As shown in figure 1, Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft through a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it, and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation.
Figure1.Cross-section of Symons cone crusher
3.Structure of symons cone crusher
Since a large gape is not required, the crushing shell or "bowl" flares outwards which allows for the swell of broken ore by providing an increasing cross-sectional area towards the discharge end. The cone crusher is therefore an excellent arrested crusher. The flare of the bowl allows a much greater head angle than in the gyratory crusher, while retaining the same angle between the crushing members (Figure 2). This gives the cone crusher a high capacity, since the capacity of gyratory crushers is roughly proportional to the diameter of the head.
Figure2.Head and shell shapes of (a) gyratory,and (b) cone crushers
The head is protected by a replaceable mantle, which is held in place by a large locking nutthreaded onto a collar bolted on the top of the head. The mantle is backed with plastic cement, or zinc, or more recently with an epoxy resin. Unlike a gyratory crusher, which is identified by the dimensions of the feed opening and the mantle diameter, a cone crusher is rated by the diameter of the cone lining.
The throw of cone crushers can be up to five times that of primary crushers, which must withstand heavier working stresses. They are also operated at much higher speeds. The material passing through the crusher is subjected to a series of hammer-like blows rather than being gradually compressed as by the slowly moving head of the gyratory.
The high-speed action allows particles to flow freely through the crusher, and the wide travel of the head creates a large opening between it and the bowl when in the fully open position. This permits the crushed fines to be rapidly discharged, making room for additional feed. The fast discharge and non-choking characteristics of the cone crusher allow a reduction ratio in the range 3-7:1, but this can be higher in some cases.
The Symons cone crusher is the most widely used type of cone crusher. It is produced in two forms: the Standard for normal secondary crushing and the Short-head for fine, or tertiary duty (Figures 6.3 and 6.4). They differ mainly in the shape of their crushing chambers. The Standard cone has "stepped" liners which allow a coarser feed than in the Short-head (Figure 6.5). They deliver a product varying from 0.5 to 6cm. The Short-head has a steeper head angle than the Standard, which helps to prevent choking from the much finer material being handled. It also has a narrower feed opening and a longer parallel section at the discharge, and delivers a product of 0.3-2.0 cm.
The parallel section between the liners at the discharge is a feature of all cone crushers and is incorporated to maintain a close control on product size. Material passing through the parallel zone receives more than one impact from the crushing members. The set on the cone crusher is thus the minimum discharge opening.
Figure3.Standard cone crusher
Figure4.short-head cone crusher
Figure 5.Liners of standard and short-head cone crushers
4.Specification of symons cone crusher
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When the hammer crusher or hammer crushing machine works, the motor drives the rotor to spin at high speed, materials are fed into the crushing cavity evenly, and then be impacted, cut and tore by high speed spinning hammerhead till they are completely crushed. Meanwhile, the gravity action of materials forces them to crash the baffle and grate bars on the frame. Materials with particle size smaller than the screen size will pass the sieve plate while those with bigger particle size are stopped on the plate and will continue to be impacted and grounded by the hammer until they are crushed to the required particle size, finally, crushed materials will be discharged from the hammer crusher through the sieve plate.
Any change of technical parameters, there is no further notice.