The production capacity of the gyratory crusher is 3-4 times higher than that of the jaw crusher. It is a typical equipment for large and hard materials in large mines and other industrial sectors. There are 3 kinds of rotary crusher, which are the fixed shaft type, the inclined surface discharge type and the central discharging type, of which the center discharge type is the most stable and the most widely used. The specifications of the gyratory crusher are often expressed as the width of the feeding/ the width of the discharge port.
2.Working principle of gyratory crusher
The working principle of gyratory crusher is shown in Figure 1. The cone of motion (the crushing cone) is installed eccentrically in a hollow fixed cone. When the axis OA rotates, the prime line of the movable cone swings around the O point, allowing each line to close and leave the plain line of the hollow cone in turn. Its working principle is the same as the jaw crusher. When the movable cone is near the fixed cone, the ore between them is crushed, otherwise, when the movable cone is away from the fixed cone, the crushed material is discharged by self weight. The crushing chamber of the gyratory crusher is the annular space between the crushing cone and the fixed cone, so the material is also crushed by the bending action. In the moment, part of the material is crushed and the part of the material opposite it is discharged at the same time, so the work is continuous.
Figure 1. Working principle of gyratory crusher
1.Crushing cone; 2.Fixed cone
3.structure of gyratory crusher
Figure 2 shows the central discharging 900/160 gyratory crusher, which is composed of frame, operating mechanism, adjusting device for discharge, transmission mechanism, insurance device, dust-proof device and lubricating system etc.
Figure 2. central discharging 900/160 gyratory crusher
1. conical sleeve; 2. conical nut; 3. wedge key; 4. bushing; 5. conical sleeve; 6. supporting ring; 7. locking plate; 8. nut; 9. crossbeam; 10., fixed cone (middle frame), 11.liner, 12. Oil retaining ring, 13. thrust disc, 14. seat, 15. large cone gear, 16. guard plate, 17. small cone gear, 18. belt wheel, 19. coupling, 20. drive shaft. 21. frame lower cover; 22. eccentric shaft sleeve;.23. bushing; 24. center sleeve; 25. bar plate; 26. guard plate; 27. cover; 28&29&30.Sealed ring; 31. main shaft; 32. crushing cone; 33. liner
The frame is composed of frame 14, fixed cone (middle frame) 10 and cross beam 9, which are bolt connected to each other. The seat is mounted on a reinforced concrete foundation.
3.2. operating mechanism
The working mechanism of the gyratory crusher consists of the crushing cone 32 and the fixed cone 10. The crushing cone is installed on the main shaft 31, and the outer surface is covered with 3 ring manganese steel liner 33. In order to tightly match the liner and the cone, the zinc alloy is poured between the two parts, and the upper end of the liner is pressed with the nut 8, and the upper end of the nut is equipped with a locking plate 7, which prevents the nut from loosening. The working surface of the fixed cone is inlaid with three parallel manganese steel liner 11. A zinc alloy or cement is also cast between the fixed cones and the liner.
3.3. Adjusting device for discharge
The width of the discharge is adjusted by the conical nut 2 on the upper end of the main shaft. Its device is shown in Figure 3. When adjusting, first main shaft and crushing cone to slightly lift the use of lifting equipment, and then remove the key 3, the main shaft suspension device on conical nut or screw, which drives the main shaft and the movable cone is increased or decreased, the discharge is reduced or increased, until the width of discharge opening required value. Then input key 3, put down the main shaft and crushing cone.
Figure 3 Adjusting device for discharge
1.conical pressing sleeve; 2. conical nut; 3. wedge key; 4. bushing; 5. conical sleeve; 6. supporting ring
3.4. Transmission mechanism
The transmission mechanism of gyratory crusher is mainly composed of motor belt wheel 18, coupling 19, drive shaft 20, cone gear 15 and 17, eccentric shaft sleeve 22, main shaft 31 and other components etc. The upper end of the shaft is suspended by conical nut 2, conical pressing sleeve 1, bushing 4 and supporting ring 6 on the croos beam 9. The role of the wedge key 3 is to prevent the 2 loosening of the cone nut. The bushing 4 is supported on the supporting ring 6 at its conical end, while the side supporting the inner surface is on the conical bushing 5. As the contact surface of the bushing 4 and 5 is the conical nut, it can ensure that the bushing 4 rolls along the support ring 6 and the conical bushing 5, thus satisfying the requirement of the crushing cone rotation. The lower end of the shaft is inserted in the eccentric hole of the eccentric shaft sleeve 22, which is eccentric to the axis of the crusher. When the eccentric shaft is rotated, the crushing cone and the shaft are conical with the hanging point on the beam as the cone top, so as to achieve the purpose of crushing materiasl. The thrust bearing of the eccentric sleeve is composed of 3 disc thrust discs. The steel disc above is connected with the large cone gear fixed on the eccentric shaft sleeve. It turns along the bronze thrust disc 13 in the middle, while the bronze disc is rotated along the steel disc below. The steel disc below is fixed on the upper end of the central sleeve with a pin. When the crusher works, start the motor first, then drive the eccentric shaft sleeve through the belt wheel 18, the elastic coupling 19, the cone gear 15 and 17, then drive the crushing cone to do the swing motion.
3.5. insurance device
The insurance device of gyratory crusher is the 4 axle pin mounted on the belt wheel hub. Once the overload occurs, the pin is cut off first and the machine stops running, thus protecting other parts from damage.
3.6. Dust-proof device
In order to prevent dust entering the crusher of the internal friction surface or mixed with the lubricating oil, 3 rings 28, 29 and 30 whith spherical surface form a seal dustproof device at the lower end of the cone crusher. The ring 28 is fixed on the crushing cone with a screw. The ring 29 is mounted on the neck of the top 27 of the center sleeve, and a skeleton type rubber oil seal is installed in it. The ring 30 is freely pressed on the ring 29. The dustproof device is simple and reliable,The dust is difficult to enter the crusher through he gap between the rings.
3.7. lubricating system
The gyratory crusher is lubricated by dilute oil and dry oil. The required lubricating oil is supplied by a special hydraulic pump station. The oil flows along the oil pipeline from the oil hole on the lower cover 21 of the machine to the lower end space of the eccentric shaft sleeve, and then rises along the gap between the main shaft and the eccentric shaft sleeve, and the gap between the eccentric bushing and the bushing. After lubricating these friction surfaces, a strand of oil rises to the thrust disc 13 of the eccentric sleeve. Another oil rises in the way with the oil retaining ring 12 and flows to the bevel gear. After the lubricating oil lubricates the components, the oil flows out through the tubing. The bearing of the drive shaft 20 of the crusher has a separate oil intake and oil exhaust pipe. The suspension of the spindle is used to lubricate the dry oil regularly through a manual oil lubrication device.
4. Hydraulic gyratory crusher
Figure 4 is a 1400/170 hydraulic gyratory crusher. The structure of the crusher is different from that of the ordinary gyratory crusher, which is controlled by the hydraulic cylinder for its adjustment and the safety device. The hydraulic cylinder is installed in the lower part of the seat, and the broken cone is supported in the hydraulic cylinder. There are 3 friction plates on the upper part of the hydraulic cylinder. The upper friction disc is fixed to the lower end of the spindle; the lower friction disc is fixed on the plunger; the upper surface of the medium friction disc is a spherical surface and the lower surface is a plane. When the crusher works, the upper and lower planes of the middle friction disc are relatively slid to the upper and lower friction plates. The change of the oil volume in the hydraulic cylinder can adjust the size of the discharge mouth. It is easy to adjust, and can be adjusted in the work. The specific adjustment process is to first open the hydraulic pump to fill the oil in the hydraulic cylinder before the crusher starts. When the crushing cone rises to the working position, it closes the globe valve and the hydraulic pump. As the safety device of the crusher, the hydraulic device is safe, reliable, fast and convenient. When the crushing chamber enters the non crushing materials, the crushing cone will plunge down the plunger due to the increase of crushing force, so that the oil pressure in the hydraulic cylinder suddenly increases. When the oil pressure exceeds the gas pressure in the accumulator, the oil in the hydraulic cylinder is squeezed into the accumulator. Therefore, the crushing cone decreases with the plunger, and the discharge mouth increases until the non crushing materials are discharged. After the non crushing materials are discharged, under the action of the accumulator, the oil is slowly pressed into the hydraulic cylinder by the one-way throttle valve, so that the crushing cone is automatically reset. When the size of the non crushing material is too large to discharge through the discharge port, the oil pressure will continue to rise. When the electric contact pressure gauge is set to a fixed value, the control system can automatically stop the main motor to ensure the safety of the equipment.
Figure 4. 1400/170 Hydraulic gyratory crusher
5.Specification of gyratory crusher
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Highly intensive casting steel material is used, the safety coefficient is high, it can operate well even in the dreadful environment.
The high intensive alloy is used for main shaft, the bush outside the main shaft is manganese steel, if the cone is wear, the bush can be changed quickly.
Hydraulic supporting is used for overload protection and adjusted discharge opening.
Main shaft position indicator is used for check the position, and adjust discharge opening ooperate with the hydraulic system.
Air seal system can seal the eccentric sleeve, gear and pinion, and also air filter system can make sure the inside air without dust.
Electric grease lubrication motor is used, it can lubricate the beam bearing in certain time and automatic.
Central lubrication system is used, it can lubricate the eccentric sleeve, gear, pinion and bearing at the same time.
The PLC is used, it is highly-automatized.
Gyratory crusher consists of tansimitting assemblies, bottom shell assemblies ,eccentric sleeve assemblies, crushing head assemblies, middle shell assemblies, spider assemblies, motor assemblies, oil cylinder assemblies, pulley assemblies and grease and oil lubricating system. The motor drives the eccentric by a horizontal shaft and a pair of conical gears while the crusher is running and force the axis of mantle to swing, therefore the opening of the upper mantle and the lower mantle changes in a certain range and the material is milled, bended and finally crushed, the crushed material is discharged by gravity from bottom of the crusher.
Any change of technical parameters, there is no further notice.